Target 3 applies to all natural terrestrial ecosystems, plus some long-established cultural ecosystems (created through human management) with important associated biodiversity.
How to protect terrestrial areas
Key steps towards Target 3 include:
- Ensuring that a full range of ecosystems are represented. Concern about some ecosystems, such as tropical forests, can overshadow the important biodiversity and ecosystem service values of other ecosystems, such as native grasslands, woodlands, savannah and tundra.
- Emphasizing a mosaic. Terrestrial protected areas need to be integrated both with conservation of inland waters and of coastal and marine systems, and with ecological corridors and sustainable management in the rest of the landscape.
- Choosing the optimal management. Many protected areas, and even more Other Effective Area-based Conservation Measures (OECMs), support a variety of uses, but these sites are not sustainable use areas. Navigating what is and is not compatible with conservation is a key challenge in the Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) and at the site-level where monitoring and adaptive management will need to be employed to ensure management is effective.
- Many of these points are applicable to marine and inland waters as well.